Web content filtering is critical for protecting networks and users against web-based threats, objectionable internet content, and distracting websites. With all of the options for controlling internet access you may be wondering: what is the best internet filter?
In this article I will overview solutions for web content filtering, describe the different content filtering methods, and emphasize the importance of blocking certain websites.Table of Contents
Web content filtering is the process of preventing employees, students, and other end-users from accessing content on the internet. The most common content to block are websites that are offensive, inappropriate, or high-risk. Schools and businesses use tools such as internet filtering software to block these websites.
Hardware or software web content filtering solutions are essential for restricting access to web content that is undesirable. Undesirable content includes pornography, malware infected sites, and sites that may be distracting to employees or students.
Keyword-based web content filtering blocks end-users from connecting to websites that have specific keywords in text strings. These keywords are identified using regular expressions (regex) and/or a predefined list of blocked keywords.
The intention of using keywords for web content filtering is to prevent users from accessing inappropriate content, however due to the Scunthorpe problem (keyword filters falsely flagging content) keyword filtering has a high potential to block access to legitimate websites. For this reason category-based web filters that include adult-oriented categories are typically used instead.
Web category filtering is used to block websites based on content categories such as pornography, violence, hate, and social media. To do this the web content filtering software references a centralized database that associates websites with common categories.
These databases need to be constantly updated to keep up with new websites as they are created. For this reason the database is most often provided by the vendor of the web content filtering solution.
When you want to access a specific webpage, you will type in a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) into your address bar such as CurrentWare.com or CurrentWare.com/blog. URL filtering blocks or allows access to specific websites or web pages based on these URLs.
URL filtering provides more granular and detailed filtering than DNS filtering by allowing companies to block individual web pages instead of the whole website at once. To make blocking entire websites easier URL-based web filters may also allow for wildcard filtering, which blocks the entire website unless exceptions are added to an allow list.
For example, a wildcard-supporting URL filter with “Facebook” on its block list and Facebook.com/CompanyPage on its allow list will allow access to Facebook.com/CompanyPage and stop users from accessing any other Facebook link.
With reference to the Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model), a URL filter blocks websites using the packet information sent during the TCP/UDP protocol (layer 4, the transport layer) or by examining the URL in the address bar of the web browser (layer 7, the application layer).
From an end-user perspective blocking websites using a Domain Name System (DNS) filter is similar to filtering using a URL filter. Both solutions allow you to enter a website into the block list of the web content filtering software in order to prevent access to the website.
The key differences are:
To understand how DNS filtering works, it’s important to understand how DNS is used when visiting a website. The human-readable URLs that we type into our web browsers are moreso there for our convenience; the process of connecting to a website actually resolves to an IP address that is associated with a web server that hosts the desired domain.
When we attempt to access a website, the DNS is used to locate the server where the domain’s website is located. A DNS filter blocks access to websites by intercepting the initial DNS query.
The filter will use its own DNS resolving service to determine whether or not the DNS query will be allowed to continue. If the domain of the desired website is not permitted on the network the website will not be served and the user will be redirected to an alternative page with a warning message.
As these IP addresses are mapped to an entire domain (website), DNS filtering does not allow you to selectively block individual pages. For example, if you would like to block access to Facebook while still allowing access to your company’s Facebook page you will not be able to do that.
For a detailed description of the DNS lookup process, check out this explainer from VeriSign.
Browser-based site blockers are extensions, applications or add-ons that are specific to each individual browser. They are most often used by individuals that would like to block distracting websites. These filters are rarely used in business settings as they are easy to bypass by using another browser.
Search engines typically include some method of filtering out explicit search results. These filters allow for search engines to be used in environments where adult-oriented content would be considered inappropriate such as schools, public libraries, and most workplaces.
Inline web filters are software or hardware appliances (such as an internet gateway) that operate within the network that they are filtering. These solutions are installed as a gateway that directly intercepts all traffic that travels through the network.
As they do not require a software client to be installed on each endpoint they are often used in environments that have guest networks, mixed platform devices, or other circumstances where direct control over devices is not feasible.
While the lack of a software client is advantageous for some deployments, it comes with a few tradeoffs. If access to a specific website is blocked in an inline filter it must remain blocked for all users on the network. These solutions are also not ideal for managing the devices of remote workers as the filtering only applies when they are connected to the network.
Endpoint-based web filters such as BrowseControl have a software client that support computer filtering or user filtering, allowing internet restriction policies to be customized for each device or student/employee/patron. The software clients receive web filtering policy updates from a central server that is managed by the company and retain the policies even when the devices disconnect from the network.
Since a computer software client needs to be installed on each device that will be controlled, organizations with a large number of computers to filter will leverage automated software deployment tools that install the agent on all of their devices simultaneously.
The need for a dedicated computer software agent also means that endpoint-based web filters are best used in environments that have in-office or remote workers using company-provided devices. Employees or students using personal devices for work-related tasks may object to having computer filtering software installed on their devices.
Firewalls are a type of inline web content filter. Firewalls can be hardware appliances or cloud-based/software-based virtual appliances. Rather than blocking specific websites, firewalls filter network traffic to authorized ports, protocols, and IP addresses.
Traditional packet-filtering firewalls operate at layer 3 (the network layer) of the OSI model to filter ports, protocols, and IP addresses. While these types of firewalls do block web traffic, they lack the ab
ility to distinguish between specific websites as they cannot identify URLs or domain names.
Over time traditional firewalls have evolved into “Next Generation Firewalls” (NGFW) that combine the packet filtering of traditional firewalls with other network filtering functions such as web application firewalls (WAFs), web content filters, and intrusion prevention systems. These solutions are typically used to harden networks and block internet traffic that has been identified as malicious.
Unless you are using a next generation firewall (NGFW) with an integrated web filter that allows you to block specific URLs, a dedicated web filter is going to give you far more granularity for controlling access to websites.
What is considered the best web content filter depends on the needs of your environment. In many environments it is not uncommon to see multiple forms of web content filtering in place that meet different requirements.
For example, a business with dedicated office space could use an inline firewall to control ingress and egress traffic as it goes through their network while also using an endpoint-based URL filter to control what specific websites their employees can access.
To simplify the comparison this section will focus on two common solutions for blocking access to internet content: Inline network-based DNS filtering vs endpoint-based URL filtering with a software agent.
|Inline Web Filtering (Agentless)||Computer Filtering (Agent)|
|Custom filtering profiles for each user/device|
|Block website categories|
|Manage guest/unknown devices|
|Web filtering schedules|
|Block websites on any network|
The key difference between DNS filtering and URL filtering is that DNS filtering blocks entire websites based on DNS queries rather than specific URLs. DNS filtering will allow you to block undesirable domains for your entire network, however it lacks the ability to block a website while allowing individual web pages.
This can be problematic in an environment where users, computers, or departments require different levels of access. Examples include business environments where marketing staff need work-related access to social media or educational environments where students and staff need unique web content filtering policies.
In environments where user-level or device-level control is desired the best internet filter will be one that supports unique filtering profiles for each user or device.
Agent-based web filters are the best web filter for remote workers as they will block websites even when they disconnect from the company network. This is ideal for other scenarios that have employees working offsite, such as laptop users that need to be protected when a corporate device is used at a remote site.
Agent-based web filters also provide the means to apply different allowed and blocked lists on a set schedule. This allows employees to access non-work websites after work hours in environments where employees are allowed to use company-provided equipment for personal use.
For BYOD environments, employees that use personal computers for work may not feel comfortable allowing their employers to install web filtering software clients on their devices.
In this instance an inline DNS filter can be installed on the company network or a client-based computer filter can be installed on the device that they remotely connect to. However, added security controls must be in place to mitigate the risks of allowing non-managed devices to connect to the corporate network.
Category filtering is a must-have feature for restricting access to inappropriate content. Fortunately, both DNS-based and URL-based web content filtering software providers offer this feature. With category filtering you can leverage a pre populated database of websites that you can block rather than manually sourcing your own list of websites.
DNS-based solutions with category filtering will only be able to strictly block or allow the entire category for your network. If you would like to block the social media category for the majority of your users while still allowing access for your marketing team you will need URL filtering.
Web filters only block what they are told to block. This leaves opportunities for end-users to visit undesirable websites that have not yet been added to the web filtering solution.
Though many web filtering solutions will include some form of logging or auditing to identify the websites that are being visited, using web content filtering in tandem with a dedicated internet and computer monitoring software is the ideal solution for enforcing acceptable use policies and ensuring that the internet is being used appropriately.
Want to start monitoring internet usage today? Get started with a free trial of BrowseReporter, CurrentWare’s internet activity monitoring software.
If you would like to set up web filtering on a network where you will not have direct control over the devices that connect to it (such as a guest WiFi hotspot), you need a network-level web content filtering solution. An agent-based solution is not ideal in this scenario as there is no feasible way to install the agent on non-managed devices.
BrowseControl makes controlling internet access based on users, departments, and computers incredibly easy. Once you’ve installed the software all it takes is just a few clicks to set up user-based permissions. This tutorial will guide you through the general setup process and show you how to control internet access based on users with BrowseControl.
Setup File Contents:
Now you can start to control internet access based on users using BrowseControl. You can do this with one of three internet content filtering methods:
With BrowseControl’s category filtering feature you can easily block millions of websites across hundreds of predefined categories. In just a few clicks you can prevent users from accessing social media, pornography, and other undesirable categories of websites.
If you would like to limit internet access to a pre-authorized list of websites, you can easily do that in BrowseControl.
Controlling access to the internet is a critical component of organizational security, productivity management, and acceptable use policy enforcement. The best internet filter will depend on the needs of your environment, the devices you would like to control, and the level of granularity desired.
Ready to start with internet content filtering in your organization? Get started with a FREE 14-day trial of BrowseControl, CurrentWare’s web content filtering software.