They say millennials are the first generation born with information in the palm of their hands. If they need to know the weather in Australia, all they have to do is grab their phone. When they have to perform research for work, they open a web browser. To find out what’s playing at the movies, they let the search engine do the work. In fact, searching the internet has become so common that society has created a verb for research—”Google it.”
Whilst the globalization of the internet continues to move at an exponential rate, the web browser continues to provide a gateway for its 4.4 billion users. Concurrently, the battle for market share has continued to intensify amongst the world’s leading browsing platforms.
Currently, Google’s Chrome browser dominates the market with its 65% share. Apple’s Safari follows far behind at 16%, and Firefox (4.5%) makes up the top three. Naturally, each browser ardently strives to increase its appeal to users through the inauguration of new features, and consolidation of existing ones. Here are some of the key factors for a great online experience, with an analysis of how the leading browsers attempt to deliver these in 2019:
In an increasingly impatient and demanding environment, modern web browsers are required to respond to requests in a matter of seconds. Fortunately, most browsers are now able to handle these requests with relative ease, and a casual user probably would not notice a difference in execution speeds between the leading browsers. Due to their increasingly low memory usage, tests show that most web browsers are now able to load ten separate pages in under thirty seconds.
A business owner’s biggest fear is a computer security breach. Whilst browsing platforms attempt to find more ways to protect users, more sophisticated ways to compromise data are also being developed. A 2018 study revealed that web browsing has caused 30% of businesses to suffer data loss, and browser vulnerabilities have climbed by 20% in 2019.
In response to this danger, browsers are strengthening their efforts to scan for security breach coding. Most browsers, for instance, use automatic updates every four to every six weeks to ensure that users have the most current and secure software in place whilst simultaneously displaying a “lock” symbol in the address bar of some websites to indicate use of an HTTPS connection (extra layer of security) which makes it safer to enter personal information. As part of one of their regular security updates (sometimes just 15 days apart), Google Chrome last year began providing notifications when an insecure website is accessed
In combination with these measures, Google pioneered a private browsing feature called “incognito mode” which prevents any login data or financial information from being saved. Other browsers have since followed suit, with Microsoft Edge being the latest, launching “InPrivate” in 2019.
Despite the introduction of private browsing options, many commentators continue to accuse popular web browsers of spying on the activity of users. A recent test by Geoffrey Fowler of The Washington Post compared the privacy protections of Google Chrome with those of the non-profit Mozilla Firefox. It was unearthed that Firefox blocked over 11,000 requests for tracker “cookies” that Chrome would have enabled. There is growing concern that the enablement of these cookies is allowing firms to build profiles of users’ interests, income, and personality. One study found these tracking cookies on 92% of websites.
Fowler says that these concerns can be heightened when looking at spying trends on mobile browsers, from which location data is saved each time a search is conducted. In light of this, a growing awareness of the tracking tendencies from cookies on our favorite browsers may coincide with an increase in popularity supposedly more “ethical” browsers. Indeed, Mark Mayo, senior vice president of Firefox at Mozilla is optimistic that there will be a growing recognition of Firefox’s dedication to protecting users privacy as far as possible with features such as its “Enhanced Tracking Protection” Released in September 2019, the technology blocks third-party tracking and crypto mining by default. It is yet to be seen whether the supremacy of Chrome can be overhauled, but there is no doubt that there will be a robust attempt. “It is possible to compete with the biggest, most powerful, software companies in the world – arguably the largest companies ever, across any industry. It’s totally possible to beat them.”
What happens when you begin a search on one device then want to finish it on another? In the past, you would have to begin again. However, web browsers are now compatible across devices so that you can locate your search history whether you are on your mobile device, computer, or even your television.
Chrome, Firefox, and Opera all remember browsing history regardless of which device you are searching on. Edge takes this one step further with its “continue on PC” feature that allows you to send webpages to your personal computer from your mobile device. Microsoft’s Edge browser takes this one step further with it’s “continue on PC” feature that allows you to send webpages to your personal computer from your mobile device. Chrome’s sync allows you to access updated passwords across devices for easy log-on to different accounts.
The importance of compatibility across devices has never been greater. In 2013, mobile phones made up for 16.2% of web traffic worldwide. In 2019, this figure has been recorded at 52.5%
Extensions increase the features of a web-browser. All of the leading web browsers provide a large and growing array of both paid and free extensions, many of which are developed by third-party providers.
Browser-based extensions are able to provide the features of a full-blown desktop program or mobile application but are run through a browser instead. The possibilities for these are unlimited, and Google reported that there are 188,000 extensions on its Chrome store as of August 2019. Some of its most popular applications, such as Grammarly, Adblock, and Google Translate have over 10 million individual installations.
Alongside their propensity to spawn productivity, efficiency, and entertainment, browser extensions can also pose threats to both privacy and security. Certain add-ons can be cunningly malicious, encompassing hidden profit-making objectives. Google Chrome prompts its users to grant permissions whilst Microsoft Edge and Apple Safari grant extensions a free reign over data.
Moreover, 2019 has seen various examples of “extension hijacking” whereby a malicious hacker can upload an update of an add-on on behalf of a developer by using phishing to gain access to credentials of developers. A well-documented example of this is that of “Youtube Queue” which was turned into adware in June 2019. You can read more about this here: https://www.zdnet.com/article/chrome-extension-caught-hijacking-users-search-engine-results/
The task of delivering a consistent and effectual user experience across multiple devices has been an ongoing challenge for web browsing companies.
The consolidation of Google Chrome’s market dominance in 2019 has been largely attributed to its decision to default block ads that violate the coalition for Better Ads Standards. This has improved the user experience by improving loading speed as well as blocking the advertisements that autoplay sound and video.
On mobile, however, the necessity for a web browser is compromised by the high quality of user experience that is available on native apps. Apps such as Snapchat, WhatsApp, and Facebook Messenger require access to cameras, microphones and the mobile operating system.
However, some commentators have recently pointed to a change in our behavior with regard to mobile application usage. The average American now downloads zero applications per month. Many “apps” are beginning to develop new functions that make their offering more comprehensive, and in turn, will allow them to be used as browsers themselves. An article by Hugh Durkin of Intercom has described Facebook as our “social browser”, Slack as our “browser for work”, and WhatsApp as our “browser for close tie friend networks.”
Ultimately, the traditional web browser will continue to be considered by most users as the most important piece of software on their PC.